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روابط چین و روسیه در حوزۀ انرژی: از همکاری ناپایدار تا همکاری راهبردی
|مطالعات اوراسیای مرکزی|
|مقاله 16، دوره 16، شماره 1، شهریور 1402، صفحه 373-397 اصل مقاله (924.26 K)|
|نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22059/jcep.2022.338220.450053|
|اکبر ولی زاده* 1؛ نرجس طاهری2|
|1استادیار، گروه مطالعات منطقهای، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران|
|2دانش آموختۀ دکتری مطالعات منطقهای،دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی ، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران|
پس از بحران اوکراین در سال 2014 و ایجاد گرایش شرقی در سیاست روسیه، همکاری با چین افزایش یافت. این موضوع در حوزۀ انرژی از یک همکاری ناپایدار پیش از بحران، به مشارکت راهبردی رسیده است. مسئله این است که ادعای راهبردیبودن، چگونه و با چه سازوکارهایی درکپذیر خواهد بود و آیا این مشارکت راهبردی ادامه خواهد یافت و چه پیامدهایی در پی دارد؟ در این نوشتار بهدنبال پاسخ این پرسش هستیم که چگونه مشارکت راهبردی روسیه و چین در حوزۀ انرژی در سالهای اخیر عملیاتی شده است؟ در پاسخ این فرضیه مطرح میشود که پیشرفت همکاریهای دوجانبه در حوزۀ انرژی و تقویت رویکرد نگاه به شرق در راهبرد انرژی روسیه، رویکرد چین برای تنوع و امنیت انرژی، ایجاد قراردادهای بلندمدت، خطوط انتقال و سرمایهگذاریها، مشارکت راهبردی دو کشور را عملیاتی کرده است. روش در این نوشتار کیفی و با استفاده از رویکرد تحلیلی - تبیینی است. در این مطالعه از متنها، گزارشها و سندها مربوط به انرژی دو کشور و سازوکارهای عملیاتیکردن راهبرد انرژی آنها بهره گرفته و از نظریۀ واقعگرایی نوکلاسیک و ارزیابی عوامل در سطح سیستم و همسطح واحد و نیز ژئوپلیتیک انرژی استفاده میکنیم. یافتههای این نوشتار نشان میدهد که روسیه و چین به پیشبرد بیشتر گسترش تجارت انرژی ادامه داده، میتوانند به ابزارهای بیشتری برای ارتقای دستورکار خود در ایجاد تعادل با ایالات متحد و نیز الگوی مطلوب چندقطبی در جهان دسترسی پیدا کنند.
|امنیت انرژی؛ مشارکت راهبردی؛ سیاست خارجی؛ چین؛ روسیه|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|China and Russia Interactions in the Field of Energy: From Unstable Cooperation to Strategic Partnership|
|Akbar Valizadeh1؛ Narjes Taheri2|
|1Assistant Professor, Depertment of Regional Studies, Faculty of Law & Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran|
|2Ph.D. in Regional Studies , Faculty of Law & Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran|
|Introduction: After the Ukraine crisis in 2014, Russia's foreign policy actually experienced an eastward shift, especially in terms of increased cooperation with China. The energy sector played a significant role in this strategic partnership between the two countries. Before the crisis, Russia's energy cooperation with China was relatively unstable and limited in scope. However, in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis, the relationship deepened and transformed into a more robust and strategic partnership.|
Research Question: The article examines the issue of what is the strategic partnership between Russia and China in the field of energy in recent years?
Research hypothesis: The hypothesis suggests that the progress of bilateral cooperation in the field of energy, along with Russia's focus on looking to the east in its energy strategy and China's emphasis on energy diversity and security, has led to the implementation of a strategic partnership between the two countries.
Methodology and Theoretical Framework: The method of this research is qualitative and with an analytical-explanatory approach. The research uses a qualitative analysis of texts, reports and documents related to Russian and Chinese energy sectors, using the theory of neo-classical realism to evaluate factors at the system and unit levels, as well as geopolitics. The operationalization of the strategic partnership between Russia and China in the field of energy can be understood by examining the mechanisms and measures that have been taken to strengthen their cooperation.
Results and Discussion: Some key aspects that have contributed to the operationalization of this partnership in recent years include:
-Bilateral Cooperation: Russia and China have engaged in various forms of cooperation in the energy sector, including the signing of long-term contracts for the supply of oil, gas, and other energy resources. These agreements provide a foundation for stable energy trade between the two countries.
-Energy Strategy Alignment: Russia has been actively shifting its energy strategy towards the east, emphasizing closer ties with China. This strategic shift is based on the recognition of China's growing energy demand and its potential as a reliable energy partner. By aligning their energy strategies, Russia and China have created a framework for mutual benefit and collaboration.
-Infrastructure Development: Both countries have invested in the development of energy infrastructure to facilitate the transportation and trade of energy resources. This includes the construction of pipelines, such as the Power of Siberia gas pipeline, which enables the export of Russian natural gas to China. The establishment of transmission lines and infrastructure projects enhances the connectivity between the energy sectors of Russia and China.
-Investment and Financing: Russia and China have also engaged in significant investment and financing activities in the energy sector. Chinese companies have invested in Russian energy projects, while Russian companies have sought capital and expertise from Chinese partners. These investments strengthen the economic ties between the two countries and facilitate the implementation of joint energy projects. The energy sector is also influenced by geopolitical factors. Both countries share a common interest in diversifying their energy partnerships and reducing their dependence on the West, particularly the United States. This strategic alignment allows Russia and China to pursue their geopolitical objectives while enhancing their energy security. The consequences of this operationalized strategic partnership can be significant. It strengthens the energy trade and cooperation between Russia and China, providing them with reliable sources of energy and contributing to their respective energy security. The partnership also enhances the geopolitical positioning of both countries, allowing them to counterbalance the influence of other global powers, particularly the United States. In addition, the deepening integration of energy cooperation between Russia and China could have implications for the global energy landscape, potentially shaping the dynamics of energy markets and resource flows.
Conclusion: The findings of the research suggest that Russia and China are further deepening their energy trade integration, which enables them to have more leverage in pursuing their agenda. This includes balancing the US and promoting a favorable multipolar model on the world stage. The institutionalized interaction between China and Russia is a complex topic that involves multiple factors shaping their foreign policy strategies. While economic and security motivations are important, they alone cannot fully explain developments in Sino-Russian relations. In addition to these factors, changing the perceptions of oneself and others, as well as the experience of interaction between the two countries, has a decisive role in the formation of their foreign policy. A key aspect is the changing narrative about world politics among elites in both countries. The way Chinese and Russian elites perceive themselves and their roles on the world stage has evolved over time. They have developed narratives that emphasize their shared interests and the need for closer cooperation. These narratives help shape their foreign policy decisions and create a sense of common purpose between the two countries. Moreover, changes in domestic factors within China and Russia also influence their foreign policy strategies.
Domestic political considerations, public opinion, and economic conditions can all play a role in shaping the approach taken by these countries in their interactions with each other and the rest of the world. For example, the dynamics of Russia's dominant public narrative and domestic politics have influenced its eastward trend. This shift in national interests is a response to how Russian politicians interpret and react to European positions, particularly in light of efforts to isolate Russia economically and geopolitically. When analyzing China-Russia relations, it is important to consider the interplay between these factors. Economic and security motivations are undoubtedly important drivers, but alone they are not sufficient to explain the depth and direction of cooperation. The evolving narratives about world politics and changing domestic factors in both countries are equally important in understanding the dynamics of institutionalized interaction and their foreign policy strategies.
|Energy Security, Strategic Partnership, Foreign Policy, China, Russia|
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