|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||111,555,968|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||86,185,293|
A Review of Air Pollution and Solutions Way Management Related to Ribbed Smoked Sheets (RSS) Production of Community-Level Rubber Cooperatives in Thailand: Smoke, Soot and PAHs particles
|مقاله 4، دوره 6، شماره 2، تیر 2020، صفحه 267-284 اصل مقاله (418.89 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Original Research Paper|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22059/poll.2019.290078.690|
|W. Kalasee* ؛ C. Teekapakvisit|
|King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon Campus, 17/1 M.6 Pathiu District, Chumphon 86160, Thailand|
|In Thailand, RSS chamber of community-level rubber cooperatives can be classified into two models: old and new model, named after the years of their establishment. Hot gas as a heat supply from Para-rubber (PR) wood (Hevea brasiliensis) combustion is used for removing moisture from the natural rubber (NR) sheets. Smoke and soot particles from PR wood burning has effected to the quality of the NR sheet and the pollution in the workplace area and lead to health problems of the worker. Cascade impactors are equipment for measuring the smoke and soot particles size distribution from PR wood combustion. PAHs compounds from PR wood combustion were found 15 different PAHs components (Tekasakul et al., 2005; Furuuchi et al., 2006). Important methods in decreasing smoke and soot particles from combustion of PR wood for rubber smoking chamber are separation equipment and ventilation designed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. In this article, the separation method is focused on smoke and soot particle collection to maintain the quality of the NR sheet. This equipment is reviewed both indoor and outdoor, for example, an impaction wall, electrostatic precipitator, stainless-wire, etc. This review indicates that the ESP installing between the furnace and the smoking chamber is suitable to eliminate aerosol particles at the rubber smoking industry. In addition, CFD technique reports is aimed at collecting aerosol particles for decreasing smoke and soot particles emission from rubber smoking chamber is presented.|
|Para-Rubber؛ wood combustion؛ Filtration؛ ESP؛ CFD|
Adeola, A., Dena, M., John V. and Kerry, M. (2007). Environmental impact of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) from solid materials. Water Sci. & Tech., 11: 277-294.
Alonso, C., Olson, B., Goyal, S., Raynor, P., Davies, P. and Torremorell, M. (2017). Comparison of two size-differentiating air samplers for detecting airborne swine viruses under experimental conditions. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 51: 198–205.
Amuda, O. and Imeokparia, F. (2007). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal waste ashes from three waste dumps in Lagos Nigeria. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia, 21: 141-144.
Andersen, A. (1956). Developmental work on the Andersen sampler. (Utah: Dugway Proving Ground Research Report). ASTM E11, specifically governs the production of test sieves.
Bai, Y., Firuuchi, M., Tekasakul, P., Tekasakul, s., Choosong, T., Aizawa, M., Hata, M. and Otani, Y. (2007). Application of soft X-rays in the decomposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.
(PAHs) in smoke particles from biomass fuel burning. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 7: 79–94.
Bharti, V., Gupta, B. and Kaur, J. (2019). Novel bacterial strains Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. isolated from petroleum oil contaminated soils for degradation of flourene and phenanthrene. Pollution, 5: 657-669.
Boussinesq, J. (1877). Theorie de l'Ecoulement Tourbillant, Mem. Presentes par Divers Savants Acad. Sci. Inst. Fr. 23: 46-50. Butler, K. and Mulholland, G. (2004). Generation and transport of smoke components, Fire Technol., 40: 149–176.
Chaivatamaset, P. (2015). The defluidization during rubber wood combustion in fluidized bed. Inter. Energy. J. 15: 135-142.
Chao, C.Y.H., Kwong, P.C.W., Wang, J.H., Cheung, C.W. and Kendall, G. (2008). Co-firing coal with rice husk and bamboo and the impact on particulate matters and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions. Bioresour. Technol. 99: 83-93.
Cheng, Y., Zhou, Y., Irvin, C., Kirkpatrick, B. and Backer, L. (2007). Characterization of aerosols containing microcystin. Mar. Drugs. 5: 136-150.
Chomanee, J., Tekasakul, S., Tekasakul, P., Furuuchi, M. and Otani, Y. (2009). Effects of moisture content and burning period on concentration of smoke particles and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from rubber-wood combustion. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 9: 404–411.
Choosong, T., Furuuchi, M., Tekasakul, P., Tekasakul, S., Chomanee, J., Jinno, T., Hata, M. and Otani, Y. (2007). Working environment in a rubber sheet smoking factory polluted by smoke from biomass fuel burning and health influences to workers. J. Ecotechnol. Res. 13: 91-96.
Choosong, T., Chomanee, J., Tekasakul, P., Tekasakul, S., Otani, Y., Hata, M. and Furuuchi, M. (2010). Workplace environment and personal exposure of PM and PAHs to workers in natural rubber sheet factories contaminated by wood burning smoke. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 10: 8-21.
Croft, B., Martin, R., Leaitch, W., Tunved, P., Breider, T., D’Andrea, S. and Pierce, J. (2016). Processes controlling the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol number and size distributions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16: 3665–3682.
Davies, C. (1952). The separation of airborne dust and mist particles. Proc. Inst. Mech. Engr. 1B: 185-198. Davies, C. (1966). Aerosol science. (London: Academic Press)
Dejchanchaiwong, R., Tirawanichakul, Y., Tirawanichakul, S. and Tekasakul, P. (2014). Single-phase and multi-phase models for temperature and relative humidity calculations during forced convection in a rubber-sheet drying chamber, Maejo Int. J. Sci. Tech. 8: 207–220.
Dejchanchaiwong, R., Arkasuwan, A., Kumar, A. and Tekasakul, P. (2016). Mathematical modeling and performance investigation of mixed-mode and indirect solar dryers for natural rubber sheet drying. Energy Sustainable Dev. 34: 44–53.
Dejchanchaiwong, R., Tirawanichakul, Y., Tirawanichakul, S., Kumar, A. and Tekasakul, P. (2017). Conjugate heat and mass transfer modeling of a new rubber smoking room and experimental validation, Appl. Therm. Eng. 112: 761-770
Deng, H., Pingan, P. and Jianzhong, W.H. (2006). Distribution and loadings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Xijiang River in Guangdong, South China. J. Chem., 64: 1401-1411.
Docherty, K., Wu, W., Lim, Y., Ziemann, P. (2005). Contributions of organic peroxides to secondary aerosol formed from reactions of monoterpenes with O3. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39: 4049–4059.
Donde, P., Raman, V., Mueller, M.E., Pitsch, H. (2013). LES/PDF based modeling of soot-turbulence interactions in turbulent flames. Proc. Combust. Inst. 34: 1183–1192
Fang, G., Wu, Y., Chen, M., Ho, T., Huang, S., and Rau, J. (2004). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons study in Taichung, Taiwan, during 2002-2003, Atm. Environ., 38: 3385-3391.
Fenklach, M. and Wang, H. (1991). Aromatics growth beyond the first ring and the nucleation of soot particles, Div. Fuel Chem., 36: 1509 Friedlander, S. (2000). Smoke, dust, and haze: fundamentals of aerosol dynamics. (Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc.)
Fuchs, N. A. (1947). The charges on the particles of aerocolloids. Investiya Acad. Nauk USSR, Ser. Geogr. Geophys. 11:341.
Furuuchi, M., Tekasakul, P., Murase, T., Otani, Y., Tekasakul, S. and Bai, Y. (2006). Characteristics of particulates emitted from rubber-wood burning. J. Ecotechnol. Res. 12: 135–139.
Giechaskiel, B., Maricq, M., Ntziachristos, L., Dardiotis, C. Wang, X., Axmann, H., Bergmann, A. and Schindle, W. (2014). Review of motor vehicle particulate emissions sampling and measurement: From smoke and filter mass to particle number. J. Aerosol Sci. 67: 48-86.
Pollution, 6(2): 277-294, Spring 2020
Gras, J. and Michael, C. (1979). Measurement of the stratospheric aerosol particle size distribution. J. App. Meteorol. 18: 855-860.
Haider, A., and Levenspiel, O. (1989). Drag coefficient and terminal velocity of spherical and non-spherical particles. Powder Tech. 58: 63–70.
Hata, M., Chomanee, J., Thongyen, T., Bao, L., Tekasakul, S., Tekasakul, P., Otani, Y. and Furuuchi, M. (2014). Characteristics of nanoparticles emitted from burning of biomass fuels. J. Environ. Sci. 26: 1913-1920.
Hinds, W.C. (1999) Aerosol Technology. (New York: John Wiley & Sons) Homann, K. H. and Wagner, H. Gg. (1966). Paper presented at the 11th. International on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, pp. 371–379.
Intra, P. and Tippayawong, N. (2005). Approach to characterization of a diode type corona charger for aerosol size measurement. KIEE Int. Trans. Electrophysics App. 5-C: 196–203.
Intra, P. and Dussadee, N. (2007). Approach to predict the total collection efficiency of a wire-plate electrostatic precipitator for particles removal from biomass furnace. (Paper presented at the 21st. Conference of Mechanical Engineering Network of Thailand, Chonburi, Thailand, pp. 152–158)
Intra, P., Limueadphai, P. and Tippayawong, N. (2010). Particulate emission reduction from biomass burning in small combustion systems with a multiple tubular electrostatic precipitator. Part. Sci. Technol. 28: 547–565.
Intra, P. and Tippayawong, N. (2011). An overview of unipolar developments for nanoparticle charging. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 11: 187–209.
ISO 3310-1:2016. Test sieves-technical requirements and testing, Part 1: Test sieves of metal wire cloth.
JB/T 12591-2016. Low-low temperature electrostatic precipitator
Kalasee, W., Tekasakul, S., Otani, Y. and Tekasakul, P. (2003). Characteristic of soot particles produced from rubber wood combustion. (Paper presented at the 2nd. Asian Particle Technology Symposium, Penang, Malaysia, pp. 103–108).
Kalasee, W., Pongpariyawatee, Y., Tantaprapa, W., Suwanjarat, S., Kirirat, P. and Tekasakul, P. (2003). Fuel efficiency enhancement in the rubber smoking process of the rubber cooperatives. (Paper presented at the 17th. Conference of Mechanical Engineering Network of Thailand, Prachinburi, Thailand, pp. 560-564).
Kalasee, W. (2009). Improvement soot particles separation equipments for rubber smoking chamber. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 9: 333–341.
Kalasee, W., Thungsotanon, D., Srisang, N. and Daungwilailux, P. (2012). The Effect of Wood Vinegar Concentration on the Quality of Rubber Sheets. (Paper presented at the 13th. Annual Conference of Thai Society of Agricultural Engineering, Chiang Mai, Thailand, pp. 557-565).
Kanaoka, C., Furuuchi, M., Myojo, T., Inaba, J. and Ohmata, K. (2006). Numerical investigation of flow and dust concentration distributions in the work area of a mountain tunnel currently under construction. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 6: 231–246. Kesavan, J., Kesavan, M. and Rule, A. (2017). Sampling efficiencies of two modified viable cascade impactors. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 51: 1296–1302.
Keyte, I.J., Harrison, R.M. and Lammel, G. (2013). Chemical reactivity and long-range transport potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons--A review, Chem. Soc. Rev. 42: 9333–9391
Kihm, K. (1987). Effects of Non-uniformities on Particle Transport in Electrostatic Precipitators, Dissertation, Stanford University
Kim, S. and Lee, K. (1999). Experimental study of electrostatic precipitator performance and comparison with existing theoretical prediction models, J. Electrost. 48: 3–25.
Kim, C., Noh, K.C. and Hwang, J. (2010). Numerical investigation of corona plasma region in negative wire-to-duct corona discharge, Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 10: 446–455
Kocik, M., Dekowski, J., Mizeraczyk, J. (2005). Particle precipitation efficiency in an electrostatic precipitator. J. Electrostat. 63: 761–766.
Kuarsakul, N., Ruangwong, B. and Pewpuak, P. (2011). Study of entrapping powder by electrostatic precipitator, Dissertation, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon Campus, Chumphon, Thailand
Letts, G.M., Raynor, P.C. and Schumann, R.L. (2003). Selecting fiber materials to improve mist filters, J. Aerosol Sci. 34: 1481-1492 Lewis, D.A. and Copley, M. (2011). Inhaled product characterization: Calculating particle-size distribution Metrics, Pharm. Technol. 35: 33–37
Lin, C., Lin, L., Hong, M., Zhang, J., Yong, D. and Chun, M. (2011). Analysis of the scale characteristics in salt sludge wet FGD system. J. China. Coal. Soc., 36: 1554–1558
Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.
Lin, C., Yue, L., Yuzhou, T., Yifei, S., Qingsong, W., Xueliang, Y. and Jon, K. (2018). Integrated assessment of the environmental and economic effects of an ultra-clean flue gas treatment process in coal-fired power plant, J. Clean. Prod., 199: 359–368.
Long, Z. and Yao, Q. (2010). Evaluation of various particle charging models for simulating particle dynamics in electrostatic precipitators. J. Aerosol. Sci., 41: 702–718.
Loomans, M. and Lemaire, T. (2002) Particle concentration calculations using CFD - a Comparison. (Paper presented at the Conference of Indoor Air, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp.153-156).
Lu, W., Howarth, A.T., Adam, N. and Riffat, S.B. (1996). Modelling and measurement of airflow and aerosol particle distribution in a ventilated two-zone chamber, Building Environ., 31: 417-423.
Ma, S., Chai, J., Chen, G., Yu, W. and Zhu, S. (2016). Research on desulfurization wastewater evaporation: present and future perspectives, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 58: 1143–1151.
Mahmudi, M., Hashemi, S. and Salemi, A. (2019). A multi-metric index for hydrocarbons source apportionment, Pollution, 5: 419-427
Martinis, D., Okamoto, A., Kado, N., Gundel, A. and Carvalho, R.F. (2002). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a bioassay fractionated extract of PM10 collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil, Atmos. Environ. 36: 307-314.
Matiyanon, T., Sathitreaungsuk, P. and Sangworakran, S. (2013). Design and performance evolution of furnace and rubber-smoked sheet (RSS) drying system high-efficiency. (Paper presented at the 27th. Conference of Mechanical Engineering Network of Thailand, Prachinburi, Thailand)
Matiyanon, T., Sathitreaungsuk, P., Sangworakran, S.and Boonprasit, P. (2014). Design and experiment of an energy-saving combustor equipped with a multi-pass heat exchanger for a high-efficiency rubber-smoked system. (Paper presented at the 28th. Conference of Mechanical Engineering Network of Thailand, Khon Kaen, Thailand) Mc Murry, J. (2000). Organic chemistry. (USA: Brooks/Cole).
Motamedimehr, S. and Gitipour, S. (2019). Extraction and recovery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum contaminated soils using supercritical water by response surface methodology. Pollution, 5: 913-922.
Park, J.W., Kim, C., Park, J. and Hwang, J. (2018). Computational Fluid Dynamic Modelling of Particle Charging and Collection in a Wire-to-Plate Type Single-Stage Electrostatic Precipitator, Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 18: 590–601.
Parker, K.R. (1997). Applied Electrostatic Precipitation. (New York: Blackie Academic & Professional). Phairuang, W., Tekasakul, P., Hata, M., Tekasakul, S., Chomanee, J., Otani, Y. and Furuuchi, M. (2019). Estimation of Air Pollution from Ribbed Smoked Sheet Rubber in Thailand exports to Japan as a Pre-Product of Tires. Atmos. Poll. Res. 10: 642-650.
Phonchat, T. and Choowijit, T. (2011). A Study of The Particle Distribution in Atmosphere, Dissertation, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Prince of Chumphon Campus, Chumphon, Thailand.
Promtong, M. (2006). CFD Study of Flow in Rubber Smoking Room and Modification to Improve Uniformity of Velocity and Temperature Distributions, Master of Engineering Thesis in Mechanical Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.
Promtong, M. and Tekasakul, P. (2007). CFD Study of Flow in Rubber Smoking-room: I. Validation with the Present Smoking-room, Appl. Therm. Eng. 27: 2113-2121. Purba, L. (2009). Airflow and Aerosol Concentration in a Ribbed Smoked Sheet Rubber Cooperative and Improvement of Ventilation, Dissertation, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.
Purba, L. and Tekasakul, P. (2012). Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Flow and Aerosol Concentration Patterns in a Ribbed Smoked Sheet Rubber Factory, Particulate Sci. Tech. 30: 220-237.
Raman, V. and Fox, R. (2016). Modeling of fine-particle formation in turbulent flames. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 48: 159–190.
Rattanamechaiskul, C., Junka, N., Potichalung, J., Wingwon, T., Boontum, W. and Srisang, N. (2016). Whiteness index Prediction of Para Rubber Sheet during Hot Air Drying. KKU Eng. J. 43: 331-333. Riahi, S., Beyler, C. and Hartman, J. (2013). Wall smoke deposition from a hot smoke layer. Fire Technol., 49: 395–409.
Ravindra, K., Bencs, L., Wauters, E., de Hoog, J., Deutsch, F., Roekens, E., Bleux, N., Bergmans, P., and Van Grieken, R. (2006). Seasonal and site specific variation in vapor and aerosol phase PAHs over Flanders (Belgium) and their relation with anthropogenic activities. Atm. Environ., 40: 771- 785.
Pollution, 6(2): 277-294, Spring 2020
Rigopoulos, S. (2010). Population balance modelling of poly-dispersed particles in reactive flows, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 36: 412–443
Rigopoulos, S. (2019). Modelling of soot aerosol dynamics in turbulent flow, Flow Turbulence Combustion, 103: 565–604 Ruttanachot, C., Tirawanichakul, Y. and Tekasakul, P. (2011). Application of Electrostatic Precipitator in Collection of Smoke Aerosol Particles from Wood Combustion. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 11: 90–98.
Saez, F., Cabanas, A., Gonzalez, A., Murillo, J.M., Martinez, J.M., Rodriguez, J.J and Dorronsoro, J.L. (2003). Cascade Impactor Sampling to Measure Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Biomass Combustion Processes. Biol. Eng. 86: 103-111.
Salaudeen, I., Sonibare, O., Sojinu, S. and Ekundayo, O. (2017). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air from industrial areas in Lagos and Ogun states, Nigeria. Pollution, 3: 561-573.
Satcher, M. (1995). Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia: 1-457.
Shin, T., Kazuhiko, N., Makoto, S. and Hisao, H. (1988). Determination of benzo[a] pyrene in airborne particulates by automated thermal desorption gaschromatography. Anal. Sci., 4: 115-116.
Simonelt, B., Sheng, G., Chen, X., Fu, J., Zhang, J., and Xu, Y. (1991). Molecular marker study of extractable organic matter in aerosols from urban areas of China. Atm. Environ., 25: 2111-2129. Sippola, M. (2002). Particle deposition in ventilation ducts. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley Sippola, M. and Nazaroff, W. (2010). Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 38: 914–925.
Sirisantipong, T. and Tantichaowanan, M. (2002). Pressure drop evolution of a medium-performance fibrous filter, Bachelor of Science Project in Physical Chemistry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand
STP555, Instrumentation for Monitoring Air Quality.
STP1002, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Indoor Air Quality.
STP1287, Characterizing Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Related Sink Effects.
Tanaka, Y. (2003). Mass transport and energy consumption in ionexchange membrane electro-dialysis of seawater, J. Membr. Sci., 215: 265–279.
Tanaka, Y. (2006). Irreversible thermodynamics and overall mass transport in ion-exchange membrane electro-dialysis, J. Membr. Sci., 281:517– 531.
Tang, N., Hattori, T., Taga, R., Igarashi, K., Yang, X., Tamura, K., Kakimoto, H., Mishukov, V. F., Toriba, A., Kizu, R. and Hayakawa, K. (2005). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air particulates and their relationship to emission sources in the Pan-Japan sea countries, Atmos. Environ., 39: 5817-5826
Tantichaowanan, M. (2005). Performance of an electrostatic precipitator designed for collection of soot Particles from wood combustion, Dissertation, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.
Tanwanichkul, B., Thepa, S. and Rordprapat, W. (2013). Thermal modeling of the forced convection sandwich greenhouse drying system for rubber sheets, Energy Convers. Manage. 74: 511–523.
Tekasakul, P., Tekasakul, S., Tantichaowanan, M., Kalasee, W. and Otani, Y. (2005). Removal of smoke particles produced from rubberwood combustion in rubber smoking industry. (Paper presented at the 4th. Asian Aerosol Conference, Mumbai, India, pp. 677–678).
Tekasakul, S., Tantichaowanan, M., Otani, Y., Kuruhongsa, P. and Tekasakul, P. (2006). Removal of soot particles in rubber smoking chamber by electrostatic precipitator to improve rubber sheet Color, Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 6: 1-14.
Tekasakul, P. and Promtong, M. (2008). Energy efficiency enhancement of natural rubber smoking process by flow improvement using a CFD technique, Appl. Energy 85: 878–895.
Tekasakul, P., Furuuchi, M., Tekasakul, S., Chomanee, J. and Otani, Y. (2008), Characteristics of PAHs in particles in the atmospheric environment of Hat Yai city, Thailand, and relationship with rubber-wood burning in rubber sheet production, Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 8: 265-278.
Tekasakul, S., Suwanwong, P., Otani, Y. and Tekasakul, P. (2008), Pressure drop evolution of a medium-performance fibrous filter during loading of mist aerosol particles, Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 8: 348-365
Tekasakul, P., Dejchanchaiwong, R., Tirawanichakul, Y. and Tirawanichakul, S. (2015). Three dimensional numerical modeling of heat and
Kalasee, W. and Teekapakvisit, C.
Pollution is licensed under a "Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"
moisture transfer in natural rubber sheet drying process, Dry. Tech. 33: 1124–1137.
Thailand Rubber Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Retrieved 2017, from http:///www.rubberthai.com
Thailand Rubber Research Institute, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Retrieved 2018, from http:///www.rubberthai.com
Tian, Z. F., Tu, J. Y. and Yeoh, G. H. (2007). CFD studies of indoor airflow and contaminant particle transportation, Particulate Sci. Tech. 25: 555–570.
Venkataraman, C., Negi, G., Sardar, S.B. and Rastogi, R. (2002). Size distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aerosol emissions from biofuel combustion, J. Aerosol Sci. 33: 503-518.
Wang, Y., Li, P., Hong-li, L., Xiao, L., and Wen, W. (2010). PAHs distribution in precipitation at Mount Taishan China. Identification of sources and meteorological influences, Atm. Resear. 95: 1-7.
White, H. J. (1951). Particle charging in electrostatic precipitation, Trans. Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs. 70:1186–1191.
White, H.J. (1963). Industrial electrostatic precipitation. (Massachusettes: Addison-Wesley).
Zhang, Z. and Chen, Q. (2006). Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of particle transport and distribution in ventilated rooms, Atmos. Environ., 40: 3396-3408.
Zhao, S., Duan, Y., Lei, C., Li, Y., Yao, T., Shuai, L., Meng, L. and Lu, J. (2017). Study on emission of hazardous trace elements in a 350 MW coal-fired power plant. Mercury. Environ Pollut., 229: 863–870.
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 911
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 617