|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||106,204,948|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||83,103,533|
ژئوپلینومی روابط ایران با جمهوری آذربایجان و ارمنستان در سالهای 2013 تا 2021
|مطالعات اوراسیای مرکزی|
|دوره 15، شماره 2، اسفند 1401، صفحه 73-101 اصل مقاله (768.69 K)|
|نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22059/jcep.2023.333666.450039|
|مهدی امیری* 1؛ احسان فلاحی2|
|1استادیار دفتر مطالعات سیاسی مرکز پژوهشهای مجلس شورای اسلامی|
|2دانشجوی دکتری رشته روابط بینالملل، دانشکده علوم اداری و اقتصاد، دانشگاه اصفهان|
|جمهوری آذربایجان و ارمنستان در شمال غربی ایران از ظرفیتهای مناسب اقتصادی و حملونقلی برای تعامل با کشور ما برخوردارند. اما تنش و منازعه میان باکو و ایروان در سه دهۀ گذشته سبب ایجاد نوسانهایی در رابطۀ تهران با دو همسایۀ شمالی شده است. از سویی، حضور قدرتهای رقیب در قفقازجنوبی نه تنها سبب ایجاد نگرانیهای امنیتی و ژئوپلیتیکی برای ایران شده است، بلکه ضرورت بهرهبرداری از فرصتهای موجود را برای ایران دوچندان کرده است. به همین منظور دولت یازدهم و دوازدهم با نگاهی عملگرایانه، همزمان در پی مهار تهدیدهای ژئوپلیتیکی و تقویت فرصتهای اقتصادی ناشی از همسایگی با این دو کشور بوده است. این پرسش مطرح است که دولت حسن روحانی در مورد جمهوری آذربایجان و ارمنستان چه رویکردی داشته است؟ پاسخ به این پرسش نیازمند چارچوب مفهومی ویژهای است که با توجه به نگرانیهای ژئوپلیتیکی، ابعاد ژئواکونومی مسئله را نیز مورد توجه قرار دهد. با این هدف با استفاده از روش پدیدارشناسی و در قالب مفهوم «ژئوپلینومی» استدلال شده است که تهران برای حفظ توازن ژئوپلیتیکی، رابطه با باکو و ایروان را در حد قابلیتهای موجود افزایش داده است. یافتههای پژوهش نشان میدهد که جایگاه ژئواکونومیک برتر جمهوری آذربایجان سبب افزایش وزن این کشور نسبت به ارمنستان بهویژه در جنبههای اقتصادی روابط با ایران (2013 تا 2021) شده است. این نوشتار با استفاده از دادههای کمی و کیفی نوشته شده است.|
|ایران؛ ارمنستان؛ جمهوری آذربایجان؛ ژئوپلینومی؛ قفقازجنوبی|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|Geopolynomics of Iran's Bilateral Relations with Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan from 2013 to 2021|
|Mehdi Amiri1؛ Ehsan Fallahi2|
|1Assistance professor of the office of political studies, Islamic Parliament Research Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran|
|2Ph.D. Candidate of International Relations, Faculty of Administrative and Economic Sciences, University of Isfahan,|
|Introduction: The tension and conflict between Baku and Yerevan in the last three decades has affected Iran's bilateral relations with both of these two countries. On the other hand, the Economic influence of rival powers in the region, has doubled Tehran's regional concerns. Therefore, preventing the threats and taking advantage of existing opportunities have become a significant necessity for Iran. According to mentioned conditions, in the period of 2013-2021, Tehran tried to use economic opportunities created by its new approach in foreign policy in light of the JCPOA.|
Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan are considered as Iran's getaway to reach Russia and Europe. We will use Geopolynomics topic as a conceptual framework in evaluating Iran's bilateral relations with Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, emphasizing the approach of Rouhani's government in the field of foreign policy between 2013 and 2021. This article uses the phenomenological method to analyze the collected data.
Research Question: This article intends to address the following question to some extent. What was Rouhani's government's approach to bilateral relations with the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia?
Research Hypothesis: Tehran has prioritized economic issues in its foreign policy in the post-JCPOA period. Tehran's geo-economic attitude towards the expansion of relations with the Republics of Azerbaijan and Armenia shows a significant example of a new approach. In the past decades, the relations between Iran and Armenia have continued according to the existing capacities but bilateral relations between Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan have experienced a more cooperative approach compared to the last decade. The outstanding geo-economic position of the Republic of Azerbaijan improved the status of this country in Iran's foreign policy and as a result, strengthened Tehran-Baku relations (between 2013-2021) compared to Tehran-Yerevan relations.
Methodology (and Theoretical Framework if there are): Geopolynomics is an analytical tool to explain the policy issues facing the post-Cold War world and the 21st century. It could be said that Geopolynomics is an informal intergovernmental regime. In fact, this term serves as informal rules between governments for economic cooperation and regional integration by taking into account the security concerns of the other side. In other words, Geopolynomics is created from the combination of Geopolitics and Geo-economics. Therefore, it can provide a useful conceptual framework for analyzing a wide range of issues such as transit corridors, transportation, energy and trade exchanges by considering security issues.
Results and Discussion: After the first Karabakh war Armenia faced with many geopolitical obstacles and economic challenges imposed by the Republic of Azerbaijan and Turkey. Therefore, cooperation with Iran is very attractive for Armenia to circumvent the imposed restrictions. Tehran-Baku relations are affected by geopolitical problems (Karabakh conflict), ethnic issues, religious ideology, the presence of extra-regional powers (arms cooperation with Israel) the legal regime of the Caspian Sea and its common resources most of which have had a negative impact on Tehran-Baku relations. Based on the main foreign policy discourse during president Rouhani’s administrations (2013-2021), the importance of Geo-economics has become more prominent. It seems that geo-economic elements have had a greater impact on the development of bilateral relations between Tehran and Baku than Yerevan. It is also noteworthy that geopolitical concerns remain active despite Geo-economic cooperation. This issue can be examined in the following three aspects:
1) The meeting of high-ranking officials,
2) Important agreements reached between the two sides regarding construction of transit corridors,
3) Trade volumes.
n the period mentioned in this article (August 2013 to August 2021), 47 high-level meetings were held between Tehran and Baku officials. Also, more than 130 meetings were held between the ministers, deputies and senior managers of the two countries. In comparison with the Republic of Azerbaijan, only 23 high level official meetings occurred between Iranian and Armenian officials and less than 40 meetings were held among low-level government officials. The abundance of meetings can indicate the political will to cooperate. In the discussion of South Caucasus, transportation and energy exchange is the most important measure of cooperation. In this regard, the Rouhani administration has signed several agreements with Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. It is important to point out that these republics are parts of International North-South Corridor. This multi-purpose corridor connects Iran's southern coasts in the Persian Gulf with Russia and Europe. There is no independent railway between Iran and Armenia. The contract for the construction of this railway line was approved by the governments of Armenia and Iran in 2009. By the end of 2013, the cost of this route was estimated at 3.5 billion dollars. This project was never implemented due to its high cost. On the other hand, Iran- the Republic of Azerbaijan railway is under construction. In addition, Iran is eager to export gas to Europe through south Caucasus region. While the transportation pipeline in Armenia is not developed, the Republic of Azerbaijan has a high potential to connect Iran to the South Caucasus gas pipeline and TANAP in Turkey. The volume of transactions between Iran and Armenia in 2020 was about 400 million dollars. This volume in 2012 was about 275 million dollars. The trade balance between Iran and Armenia has always been in favor of Tehran. On the other hand, the volume of transactions between Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan has grown more than Armenia. This volume was less than 270 million dollars in 2012 and reached 495 million dollars in 2019.
Conclusion: This research was conducted with the aim of evaluating the economic and political situation of the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia in Iran's foreign relations. The main findings of the article were that bilateral relations between Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan increased more than the relations between Iran and Armenia from 2013 to 2021. The stated conditions are a normal choice for Iran because the geo-economic position of the Republic of Azerbaijan has more potential for expanding bilateral relations with Iran. Contrary to the Republic of Azerbaijan's geo-economic importance, Armenia is Iran's vital geopolitical partner in the South Caucasus.
|Iran, the Republic of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Geopolinomic, South Caucasus|
ADB (2021), Armenia: Armenia–Georgia Border Regional Road (M6 Vanadzor–Bagratashen) Improvement Project, Asian Development Bank, Available at: https://www.adb.org/projects/49244-002/main, (Accessed on: 26/10/2021).
Asbarez (2016), Russia, Iran in Talks to Lay Power Line via Armenia, Available at: https://www.asbarez.com/russia-iran-in-talks-to-lay-power-line-via-armenia/, (Accessed on: 23/10/2021).
Asbarez (2017), Armenia, Iran to Look for New Investor for Meghri Hydropower Plant, Available at: https://asbarez.com/armenia-iran-to-look-for-new-investor-for-meghri-hydropower-plant, (Accessed on: 24/10/2021).
Asbarez (2019), Iran Looks to Boost Gas Supplies to Armenia, Available at: https://asbarez.com/iran-looks-to-boost-gas-supplies-to-armenia, (Accessed on: 25/10/2021).
Aslanidze, Anna (2016), The Role of the Energy Charter in Promoting Electricity Cooperation in the South Caucasus, Energy Charter Secretariat Knowledge Center, Occasional Paper Series. Available at: https://www.energycharter.org/ what-we-do/knowledge-centre/occasional-papers/the-role-of-the-energy-charter-in-promoting-electricity-cooperation-in-the-south-caucasus/(Accessed on: 25/10/2021).
Avdaliani, Emil (2021), Iran in the South Caucasus: Adjustment and Evolution, RUSI, Available at: https://rusi.org/explore-our-research/publications/ commentary/iran-south-caucasus-adjustment-and-evolution, (Accessed on: 26/10/2021).
Azernews (2018), Iran Says Agreed Oil, Gas Swap Deal with Azerbaijan, Available at: https://www.azernews.az/oil_and_gas/128760.html, (Accessed on: 23/10/2021).
Barry, James (2016), “Brothers or Comrades at Arms? Iran’s Relations with Armenia and Azerbaijan”, in: Akbarzadeh, Shahran, & Conduit, Dara (Eds), Iran in the World: President Rouhani's Foreign Policy, Springer.
Cohen, Ronen A, Tzvi Lev (2021), “A Triangle of Interests: Azerbaijan, Iran and Israel”, Iran and the Caucasus, Vol. 25. No. 1, pp. 74-89. (doi: 10.1163/1573384x-20210108).
Cornell, Svante E (1998), “Iran and The Caucasus”, Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 51-67. (doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4967. 1998.tb00369.x)
CSR (2020), Assessment of Preferential Trade Agreement between Iran and the Eurasian Economic Union; Opportunities and Challenges, Center for Strategic Research Expediency Discernment Council (CSR), Available at: https://csr.ir/0000Ha, (Accessed on: 23/10/2021). [in Persian]
Dolaberidze, Dimitri (2018), Iran Interested in Using the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway, Georgia Today, Available at: http://www.gtarchive.georgiatoday.ge/ news/9562/Iran-Interested-in-using-the-Baku-Tbilisi-Kars-Railway, (Accessed on: 20/10/2021).
EFSD (2020), Construction of the North-South Road Corridor in Armenia, Eurasian Fund for Stabilization and Development (EFSD), Available at: https://efsd.eabr.org/en/projects/construction-of-the-north-south-road-corridor-in-armenia, (Accessed on: 24/10/2021).
Erendor, Mehmet Emin and Mehmet Fatih Öztarsu (2019), “Iranian Relations with Azerbaijan and Armenia: A Comparative Approach in the Case of Pragmatist Politics”, BAİBÜ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 157-176. (doi: 10.11616/basbed.vi.487167).
European Commission (2017), Road Links between Yerevan and E60 in Georgia (North-South Corridor - Section Yerevan to Bavnt), Available at: https://www.ec.europa.eu/eu-external-investment-plan/projects/road-links-between-yerevan-and-e60-georgia-north-south-corridor-section-yerevan-bavnt_en, (Accessed on: 19/10/2021).
European E-Road Network (2021), E 119 North-South Reference Road, Available at: https://eldonk.home.xs4all.nl/eroads/E119.htm, (Accessed on: 19/10/2021).
Financial Tribune (2018a), China Interested in Iran-Armenia Rail Project, Available at: https://www.financialtribune.com/articles/economy-business-and-markets/ 83024/china-interested-in-iran-armenia-rail-project, (Accessed on: 16/10/2021).
Financial Tribune (2018b), Expansion in Iran-Azerbaijan Power Swap Agreement, Available at: https://financialtribune.com/articles/energy/84590/expansion-in-iran-azerbaijan-power-swap-agreement, (Accessed on: 22/10/2021).
GIRI (2015a), Iran Gas Exportation to Europe After 5+1 Agreement, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (GIRI), Available at: https://dolat.ir/detail/ 267785, (Accessed on: 21/10/2021). [in Persian]
GIRI (2015b), Iran- Azerbaijan Agreement about Petroleum Products Swap, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (GIRI), Available at: https://dolat.ir/detail/272250, (Accessed on: 21/10/2021). [in Persian]
GIRI (2015c), Expansion of Electricity Relations between Iran and Azerbaijan, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (GIRI), Available at: https://dolat.ir/detail/249438, (Accessed on: 20/10/2021). [in Persian]
GIRI (2017a), Cabinet Meeting, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (GIRI), Available at: https://dolat.ir/detail/303626, (Accessed on: 17/10/2021). [in Persian].
GIRI (2017b), President at Iran, Russia and Azerbaijan Trilateral Meeting, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (GIRI), Available at: https://dolat.ir/detail/300791, (Accessed on: 17/10/2021). [in Persian]
GIRI (2018), Rasht- Qazvin Rail Road is Most Effective Project of the Country, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (GIRI), Available at: https://dolat.ir/detail/319310, (Accessed on: 18/10/2021). [in Persian]
GIRI (2020), Iran, Armenia Discuss Natural Gas-Electricity Barter Deal, Government of The Islamic Republic of Iran (GIRI), Available at: https://irangov.ir/detail/354317, (Accessed on: 18/10/2021). [in Persian]
GIRI (2021), Iran, Azerbaijan ink MOU for Constructing Bridge Over Astrachai, Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran (GIRI), Available at: https://dolat.ir/detail/365519, (Accessed on: 18/10/2021). [in Persian]
Güngör, Gülperi (2021), Transportation Projects in Caucasia, Avrasya İncelemeleri Merkezi (AVİM), Available at: https://avim.org.tr/en/analiz/transportation-projects-in-caucasia#, Accessed on: 26/10/2021.
Gurbanov, Ilgar (2016), “Russia Pushes ‘Gas Swap’ Plans with Iran Amidst Azerbaijan-Iran Gas Talks”, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol. 13, No. 145 Available at: https://www.jamestown.org/program/russia-pushes-gas-swap-plans-with-iran-amidst-azerbaijan-iran-gas-talks, (Accessed on: 13/10/2021).
Hafeznia, Mohammad Reza (2014), Principles and Concepts of Geopolitics, Mashhad: Papoli [in Persian].
Huseynov, Vasif (2021), “Azerbaijan Embarks on Construction of Nakhichevan Railway”, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol. 18, No. 54, Available at: https://www.jamestown.org/program/azerbaijan-embarks-on-construction-of-nakhchivan-railway-part-three, (Accessed on: 12/10/2021).
Inan, Feride & Yayloyan, Diana (2018), New Economic Corridors in the South Caucasus and the Chinese One Belt One Road, European Union.
IRNA (2015), Iran's Ambassador: Iran Participation in Azerbaijani Gas Pipeline Is Possible, Islamic Republic News Agency, Available at: https://www.irna.ir/ news/81724142, (Accessed on: 9/10/2021) [in Persian].
ISNA (2021), Participation of Khatam Sepah Base in Completing the Rasht-Astara Railway, Iranian Student's News Agency (ISNA), Available at: https://www.isna.ir/news/1400042417768, (Accessed on: 11/10/2021). [in Persian]
Jalilov, Orkhan (2020), Azerbaijan, Iran Agree to Build Power Plant in Recently Liberated Border Area, Caspian News, Available at: https://www.caspiannews.com/news-detail/azerbaijan-iran-agree-to-build-power-plant-in-recently-liberated-border-area-2020-12-27-0/, (Accessed on: 6/10/2021).
Jardine, Bradley (2018a), Armenia Shelves Iranian Railway Project as Azerbaijan Steams Ahead, Eurasianet, Available at: https://eurasianet.org/armenia-shelves-iranian-railway-project-as-azerbaijan-steams-ahead, (Accessed on: 16/10/2021).
Jardine, Bradley (2018b), Armenia and Azerbaijan Compete to Attract Iranian Cargo, Eurasianet, Available at: https://eurasianet.org/armenia-and-azerbaijan-compete-to-attract-iranian-cargo, (Accessed on: 11/10/2021).
Javadi, Mohammad Ja’afar, Ehsan Fallahi (2015), “The Comparative Examination of Iran and Turkey’s Foreign Policy in South Caucasus with Emphasis on Azerbaijan and Armenia”, Central Eurasia Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 211-228. [in Persian]. (doi: 10.22059/JCEP.2015.56845).
Kaleji, Vali (2021), Zarif Travels Simultaneously to the Republic of Azerbaijan and Armenia; Breaking a Taboo, The Institute for Iran-Eurasia Studies (IRAS), Available at: http://iras.ir/1430/, (Accessed on: 17/10/2021). [in Persian]
Kazi, Afttab (2007), Pivotal Pakistan: GCAP and the Geopolinomics of Central Asia’s Traditional Indus Basin Corridor, In: International Conference on “Partnership, Trade and Development in Greater Central Asia”, Kabul, Afghanistan.
Kelbizadeh, Elnur H (2019), “The Dynamics of The Development of Armenian-Iranian Relations” in: The Post-Soviet Period”, History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Caucasus, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 639-651, (doi: 10.32653/CH154639-651).
Kim, Dong Jung (2020), "Making Geoeconomics an IR Research Program", International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 321-339 (doi: 10.1093/isp/ekaa018)
Kouhi-Esfahani, Marzieh (2019), Iran's Foreign Policy in the South Caucasus, Relations with Azerbaijan and Armenia, London: Routledge. (doi: 10.4324/9781315143262).
Kraus, Josef and Emil Souleimanov (2016), “A Failed Comeback Understanding Iranian Policies in the South Caucasus”, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 448-464 (doi: 10.1080/19448953.2016.1196024).
Luttwak, Edward N (1990), “From Geopolitics to Geo-Economics: Logic of Conflict, Grammar of Commerce”, The National Interest, No. 20, pp 17-23. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/42894676, (Accessed on: 21/11/2021).
Meghdesyan, Arshaluis (2015), Armenia's Power Deals with Iran, Russia, Institute for War & Peace Reporting, Available at: https://iwpr.net/global-voices/armenias-power-deals-iran-russia,( Accessed on: 10/10/2021)
Mehr News (2021), Persian Gulf-Black Sea Corridor to Become Operational Soon, Available at: https://en.mehrnews.com/news/172363/Persian-Gulf-Black-Sea-Corridor-to-become-operational-soon, (Accessed on: 21/10/2021).
OWPIRI (2018), Caspian Sea Convention Signed, Official Website of the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran (OWPIRI), Available at: https://www.president.ir/fa/105642, (Accessed on: 11/10/2021) [in Persian].
OWPIRI (2019a), In the Meeting Rouhani with the Deputy of Azerbaijan's Prime Minister, Official Website of the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran (OWPIRI), Available at: https://www.president.ir/fa/112643/printable, (Accessed on: 14/10/2021) [in Persian].
OWPIRI (2019b), In the Meeting of Dr. Vaezi with the Minister of Economy of Azerbaijan, Official Website of the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran (OWPIRI), Available at: https://www.president.ir/fa/108408/printable, (Accessed on: 12/10/2021) [in Persian].
Parkhomchik, Lidiya (2018), “Recent Developments in the Energy Strategy of Iran in the Caspian Region”, Post-Soviet Issues, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 149-160 (doi: 10.24975/2313-8920-2018-5-2-149-160).
Poghosyan, Benyamin (2019), “The Seventh Corridor of the Belt and Road Initiative”, IndraStra Global, Vol. 5, No. 3 (doi: 2381-3652).
Rahimov, Rahim (2018), “Azerbaijan, Iran Reach Breakthrough on Disputed Fields in the Caspian Sea”, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol. 15, No. 52. Available at: https://jamestown.org/program/azerbaijan-iran-reach-breakthrough-on-disputed-fields-in-the-caspian-sea,(Accessed on: 17/10/2021).
Rahimov, Rahim (2021), “Iran Seeks to Reroute North-South Transport Corridor to Armenia, away from Azerbaijan”, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Vol. 18, No. 29. Available at: https://jamestown.org/program/iran-seeks-to-reroute-north-south-transport-corridor-to-armenia-away-from-azerbaijan, (Accessed on: 15/10/2021).
Rajabova, Sara (2015), Complete Lifting of Sanctions to Foster Azerbaijan-Iran Cooperation, AZERNEWS, Available at: https://www.azernews.az/business/ 89850.html, (Accessed on: 6/10/2021).
Rippberger, Renée (2019), The Enemy of My Friend Is My Friend: Assessing Armenia’s Relationship with Iran, International Center for Human Development.
Road Department (2021), Tranche 4. Artashat-Agarak, Available at: https://armroad.am/en/projects/north-south-road-corridor-investment-program/ Artashat-Qajaran-Sisian-Qajaran-Qajaran-Agarak, (Accessed on: 17/10/2021).
Scholvin, Sören & Mikael Wigell (2018), “Power Politics by Economic Means: Geoeconomics as an Analytical Approach and Foreign Policy Practice”, Comparative Strategy, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 73-84. (doi: 10.1080/01495933. 2018.1419729)
Shlapentokh, Dmitry (2019), “Azerbaijan and Iran: A Shift in Geopolitical Gravity”, Middle East Policy, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 79-94. (doi: 10.1111/mepo.12458).
TRACECA (2021a), North-South Armenian Road Corridor, available at: http://www.traceca-org.org/en/investments/investment-projects/detail/ ?tx_tracecainvprojectstable_pi3%5Buid%5D=1&cHash=0776f1698968ba9c6392623545b63b9f,(Accessed on: 19/10/2021).
TRACECA (2021b), South-West, Available at: http://www.traceca-org.org/en/ countries/azerbaijan/transport-corridors/south-west/, (Accessed on: 19/10/2021).
UIC (2018a), Iranian President Rouhani Inaugurates Astara – Astara Rail Line, International Union of Railway, Available at: https://www.uic.org/com/enews/ nr/591/article/president-rouhani-inaugurates-astara-astara-rail-line, (Accessed on: 19/10/2021).
UIC (2018b), Iran: North-South Corridor Is Vital for Iran’s Rail Transport Development, International Union of Railway, Available at: https://www.uic.org/ com/enews/nr/588/article/iran-north-south-corridor-is-vital-for-iran-s-rail-transport-development?var_recherche=Astara, (Accessed on: 19/10/2021).
UN Comtrade Database (2021), Armenia and Azerbaijan Reported, Available at: https://comtrade.un.org/, (Accessed on: 25/10/2021).
Weiss, Andrea and Yana Zabanova (2017), The South Caucasus and Iran in the Post-Sanctions Era, Berlin: German Institute for International and Security Affairs.
World Bank (2007), Concession Agreement on the Transfer of the Armenian Railway, Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/ library/concession-agreement-transfer-armenian-railway-system-south-caucasian-railway-closed-joint-stock-company-created-russian-railways-closed-open-joint-stock-company, )Accessed on: 14/10/2021(.
Worldview (2018), In the Caucasus, Competition Will Limit Cooperation, Available at: https://www.worldview.stratfor.com/article/caucasus-competition-will-limit-cooperation, (Accessed on: 26/10/2021).
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 221
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 141