|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||103,614,172|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||81,460,326|
Effects of Flow Hydraulics, Pipe Structure and Submerged Jet on Leak Behaviour
|Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal|
|مقاله 2، دوره 52، شماره 2، اسفند 2019، صفحه 225-243 اصل مقاله (1.21 M)|
|نوع مقاله: Research Papers|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22059/ceij.2019.261472.1499|
|Seyyed Ahmadreza Shahangian1؛ Massoud Tabesh 2؛ Mohammad Hossein Mirabi3|
|1School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran|
|2School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran|
|3School of Civil Engineering at University of Qom, Tehran, Iran|
|The aim of this paper is numerical and experimental study of the effects of flow hydraulics, pipe structure (particularly elastic behaviour) and submerged jet on leak behaviour. In this regard, experimental tests were performed on a high-pressure circulation set up. Experiments were performed on an old steel pipe and a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe discharged to the atmosphere in a wide range of pressures up to 50 m. To analyze the leak behaviour, the effect of the surrounding environment and the pressure on leak area, the experimental setup was modeled by ANSYS software. Then, the numerical model was validated using experimental results and used to analyze and generalize leakage results in other situations. The results indicated that: 1) Standard k-ε turbulence model showed a better performance and relatively better results in modelling leakage in comparison with the other turbulence models, 2) Combining the Finite Volume and Finite Element methods for taking into account the impact of pressure allowed simultaneous examination of the pipe hydraulics and the structure of the leak area to obtain more reasonable results from hydraulic analysis of the flow and pipe structure, 3) Pressure fluctuations in the submerged jet affect the leakage discharge so that it is reduced compared to discharging to the atmosphere, 4) it was observed that the leakage exponent is close to the theoretical value of 0.5, considering the effect of pressure head on leak area behaviour. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between pressure head and leak area for elastic pipes.|
|Leak Area؛ Leak Behaviour؛ Leakage Exponent؛ Pipe Structure؛ Submerged Jet|
Albertson, M.L. et al. (1950). “Diffusion of submerged jets”, Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 115(1), 639-664.
Ardakanian, R. and Ghazali, A.A. (2003). “Pressure-leakage relation in urban water distribution systems”, In New Pipeline Technologies, Security, and Safety, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, 304-312.
Ashcroft, A. and Taylor, D. (1983). “The ups and downs of flow and pressure ups and downs of flow and pressure”, Surveyor, 162, 16-18.
American Water Works Association (AWWA), (1999). Water conservation guide book
Cassa, A.M., Van Zyl, J.E. and Laubscher, R.F. (2006). “A numerical investigation into the behaviour of leak openings in UPVC pipes under pressure”, In WISA2006 the Water Institute of Southern Africa Biennial Conference and Exhibition, South Africa.
Cassa, A. and van Zyl, J. (2008). “A numerical investigation into the behaviour of cracks in UPVC pipes under pressure”, 10th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Conference, Kruger National Park, South Africa.
Cassa, A.M., Van Zyl, J.E. and Laubscher, R.F. (2010). “A numerical investigation into the effect of pressure on holes and cracks in water supply pipes”, Urban Water, 7(2), 109-120.
Cassa, A.M. and Van Zyl, J.E. (2013). “Predicting the head-leakage slope of cracks in pipes subject to elastic deformations”, Water Supply: Research and Technology- AQUA, 62(4), 214-223.
Cassa, A.M. and van Zyl, J.E. (2014). “Predicting the leakage exponents of elastically deforming cracks in pipes”, Procedia Engineering, 70, 302-310.
Coetzer, A.J., Van Zyl, J.E. and Clayton, C.R.I. (2006). “Experimental study of the hydraulics of small circular holes in water pipes”, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Johannesburg.
Coetzer, A.J., Van Zyl, J.E. and Clayton, C.R.I., (2008). “An experimental investigation into the turbulent-flow hydraulics of small circular holes in plastic pipes”, In 8th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Symposium, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.
De Paola, F. and Giugni, M. (2012). “Leakages and pressure relations: an experimental research”, Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions, 5(1), 403-419.
De Paola, F., Galdiero, E., Giugni, M., Papa, R. and Urciuoli, G. (2014). “Experimental investigation on a buried leaking pipe”, Procedia Engineering, 89, 298-303.
De Marchis, M., Fontanazza, C., Freni, G., Notaro, V. and Puleo, V. (2016). “Experimental evidence of leaks in elastic pipes”, Water Resources Management, 30 (6), 2005-2019.
Farley, M., and Trow, S. (Eds.). (2003). Losses in water distribution networks: a practitioner's guide to assessment, monitoring and control, IWA Publishing, London.
Ferrante, M., Massari, C., Brunone, B. and Meniconi, S. (2013). “Leak behaviour in pressurized PVC pipes”, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 13(4), 987-992.
Ferrante, M., Massari, C., Cluni, F., Brunone, B., and Meniconi, S. (2009). “Leak discharge and strains in a polyethylene pipe”, Integrating Water Systems, 203-208, Laiden, Netherlands.
Ferrante, M., Massari, C., Brunone, B. and Meniconi, S. (2011). “Experimental evidence of hysteresis in the head–discharge relationship for a leak in a polyethylene pipe”, Hydraulic Engineering, 137(7), 775-780.
Ferrante, M. (2012). “Experimental investigation of the effects of pipe material on the leak head-discharge relationship”, Hydraulic Engineering, 138(8), 736-743.
Fox, S., Collins, R. and Boxall, J. (2016). “Physical investigation into the significance of ground conditions on dynamic leakage behaviour”, Water Supply: Research and Technology-AQUA, 65(2), 103-115.
Franchini, M. and Lanza, L., (2014). “Leakages in pipes: generalizing Torricelli's equation to deal with different elastic materials, diameters and orifice shape and dimensions”, Urban Water, 11(8), 678-695.
Greyvenstein, B. and Zyl, J.V. (2007). “An experimental investigation into the pressure-leakage relationship of some failed water pipes”, Water Supply: Research and Technology- AQUA, 56(2), 117-124.
Guo, S., Zhang, T.Q., Shao, W.Y., Zhu, D.Z. and Duan, Y.Y. (2013). “Two-dimensional pipe leakage through a line crack in water distribution systems”, Zhejiang University Science A, 14(5), 371-376.
Lambert, A. (2001). “What do we know about pressure- leakage relationships in distribution systems?”, IWA Conference System Approach to Leakage Control and Water Distribution Systems Management, Brno, Czech Republic.
Latifi, M., Naeeni, S.T.O. and Mahdavi, A. (2017). “Experimental assessment of soil effects on the leakage discharge from polyethylene pipes”, Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 18(2), 539-554.
May, J. (1994). “Pressure dependent leakage”, World Water and Environmental Engineering management, 17(8), 10.
Massari, C. (2012). “Diagnosis and hydraulic characterization of pressurized pipe systems”, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Perugia, Italy.
Massari, C., Ferrante, M., Brunone, B., and Meniconi, S. (2012). “Is the leak head–discharge relationship in polyethylene pipes a bijective function?”, Hydraulic Research, 50(4), 409-417.
Noack C. and Ullanicki, B. (2007). “Modelling of soil diffusibility on leakage characteristics of buried pipe”, 8th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Symposium, Cincinnati, OH.
Sendil, U. and Al Dhowalia, K.H. (1992). “Relationship between pressure and leakage in a water distribution network”, Proceedings of the AWWA Annual Conference, Vancouver, BC.
Ssozi, E.N., Reddy, B.D. and Van Zyl, J.E. (2016). “Numerical investigation of the influence of viscoelastic deformation on the pressure-leakage behaviour of plastic pipes”, Hydraulic Engineering, 142(3), 04015057.
Standard, A.S.T.M. (2003). D638: Standard test method for tensile properties of plastics, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Standard, A.S.T.M. (2008). D792: Test methods for density and specific gravity (relative density) of plastics by displacement, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Standard, A.S.T.M. (2010). D695: Standard test method for compressive properties of rigid plastics, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Standard, A.S.T.M. (2014). D3350: Standard specification for polyethylene plastics pipe and fittings materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Streeter, V.L. (1962). Fluid mechanics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York.
Thornton, J. (2003). “Managing leakage by managing pressure: A practical approach”, Water, 21(10), 43-44.
Thornton, J. and Lambert, A. (2005). “Progress in practical prediction of pressure: leakage, pressure: burst frequency and pressure: consumption relationships”, IWA Special Conference ‘Leakage 2005’, Halifax, Canada.
Walski, T., Whitman, B., Baron, M., and Gerloff, F. (2009). “Pressure vs. flow relationship for pipe leaks”, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, 1-10, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A.
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 537
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 379