|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||106,284,847|
|تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله||83,178,413|
Photocatalytic Degradation of Benzene and Toluene in Aqueous Medium
|مقاله 8، دوره 2، شماره 2، تیر 2016، صفحه 199-210 اصل مقاله (692.99 K)|
|نوع مقاله: Short Communication|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.7508/pj.2016.02.008|
|Pardeep Singh* 1؛ A. Borthakur2؛ N. Srivastava3؛ R. Singh4؛ D. Tiwary1؛ P.K. Mishra3|
|1Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi-221005 India|
|2Centre for Studies in Science Policy, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi-110067, India|
|3Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi-221005 India|
|4Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development (IESD), Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India|
|The resource intensive human activities (such as mining and extraction of mineral oils for betterment of life and modernization of society) have increased environmental pollution several folds. Products of mining and petrochemical industries are advantageous for the modern society. But waste generated such as BTEX from such industries are carcinogenic, toxic and causes adverse effects on environment and human health. These wastes are classified as hazardous waste which cannot be used further. Pollution of soil-water interface due to the release of hydrocarbons in environment is a major public health concern, and therefore, remediation of these pollutants is needed to reduce risk to human and environment. Various methods such as biological, chemical and physical method are used to degrade these pollutants from wastewater. In the present works photochemical degradation of toluene and benzene in wastewater are studied using activated Carbon−TiO2 composites as catalysts in the presence of UV irradiation in photochemical reactor. Composites are prepared by sol-gel method and further characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformed-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Photocatalytic efficiencies of the synthesized composites were determined by the mineralization of toluene and benzene under UV irradiation in photochemical reactor.|
|benzene؛ Nanocomposite؛ petrochemical pollutants؛ photochemical degradation؛ TiO2؛ toluene|
Aarthi, T., Narahari, P. and Madras, G. (2007).
Photocatalytic degradation of Azure and Sudan
dyes using nano TiO2. Journal of Hazardous
Materials 149(3), 725-734.
Abdullah, A.M., Al-Thani, N.J., Tawbi, K. and Al-
Kandari, H. (2015). Carbon/nitrogen-doped TiO2:
New synthesis route, characterization and
application for phenol degradation. Arabian Journal
Akpan, U.G., and Hameed, B.H., (2009).
Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation
of dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts: a review.
J. Hazard. Mater. 170, 520–529
Bernstein, J.A., Alexis, N., Bacchus, H., Bernstein,
I.L., Fritz, P., Horner, E. and Reijula, K. (2008).
The health effects of nonindustrial indoor air
pollution. Journal of Allergy and Clinical
Immunology, 121(3), 585-591.
Bonvicini, S., Antonioni, G., Morra, P., and Cozzani, V. (2015). Quantitative assessment of
environmental risk due to accidental spills from onshore pipelines. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 93, 31-49.
Boström, C.E., Gerde, P., Hanberg, A., Jernström, B., and Johansson, C. ( 2002). Cancer risk assessment,
Carl L. Yaws.1991. Chemical Properties Handbook. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 364–378.
Caselli, M., De Gennaro, G., Marzocca, A., Trizio, L., and Tutino, M. (2010). Assessment of the impact of the vehicular traffic on BTEX concentration in ring roads in urban areas of Bari (Italy). Chemosphere. 86:306–311.
Charles E. Schaefer (2010). Aerobic biodegradation of iso-butanol and ethanol and their relative effects on BTEX biodegradation in aquifer materials. Chemosphere. 81(9): 1104-1110. Da Rocha, O.R.S., Dantas, R.F., Duarte, M.M.M.B., Duarte, M.M.L. and Da Silva, V.L. (2010). Oil sludge treatment by photocatalysis applying black and white light. Chemical Engineering Journal, 157(1), 80-85.
Demirci, S., Erdogan, B., and Ozcimder, R. (1997). Wastewater treatment at the petroleum refinery Kirikkale Turkey using some coagulant and Turkiskh clays as coagulant aids. Water Res. 32, 3495–3499. Diya’uddeen, B.H., Daud, W.M.A.W. and Aziz, A.A. (2011). Treatment technologies for petroleum refinery effluents: a review. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 89(2), 95-105.
Dórea, H.S. (2006). Analysis of BTEX, PAHs and metals in the oilfield produced water in the State of Sergipe (Brazil). Microchemical Journal 85(2):234–238.
El-Naas, M.H., Al-Zuhair, S., Al-Lobaney, and A., Makhlouf, S. ( 2009). Assessment of electrocoagulation for the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater. J. Environ. Manage. 91, 180–185.
F. Gerard Adams and Jaime Marquez. (1983). The Impact of Petroleum and Commodity Prices in a Model of the World Economy. Contributions to Economic Analysis. 147: 203–218.
Farzanegan, M. R. and Markwardt, G. (2009). The effects of oil price shocks on the Iranian economy. Energy Economics, 31(1), 134-151.
Ferrari-Lima, A.M., de Souza, R.P., Mendes, S.S., Marques, R.G., Gimenes, M.L. and Fernandes-Machado, N.R.C. (2015). Photodegradation of benzene, toluene and xylenes under visible light applying N-doped mixed TiO2 and ZnO catalysts. Catalysis Today 241, Part A, 40-46.
Fujishima, A., Zhang, X. and Tryk, D.A. (2008). TiO2 photocatalysis and related surface phenomena. Surf. Sci. Rep. 63, 515–582.
García-Peña, I., Ortiz, I., Hernandez, S. and Revah, S. (2008). Biofiltration of BTEX by the fungus Paecilomyces variotii. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 62(4), 442-447.
Haque, M.M. (2007). Photodegradation of norfloxacin in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 145(1, 2): 51–57.
Han, J.K., Choi, S.M., and Lee, G.H. (2007). Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline TiO 2–SrO composite powders under visible light irradiation. Materials Letters, 61(18), 3798-3801.
Hao, C., Li, J., Zhang, Z., Ji, Y., Zhan, H., Xiao, F., Wang, D., Liu, B. and Su, F. (2015). Enhancement of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles doped with CeO2 and supported on SiO2 for phenol degradation. Applied Surface Science 331, 17-26.
He, F., Ma, F., Li, T. and Li, G. (2013). Solvothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles using different nitrogen sources, and their photocatalytic activity for degradation of benzene. Chinese Journal of Catalysis 34(12), 2263-2270.
Hinojosa-Reyes, M., Arriaga, S., Diaz-Torres, L.A. and Rodríguez-González, V. (2013). Gas-phase photocatalytic decomposition of ethylbenzene over perlite granules coated with indium doped TiO2. Chemical Engineering Journal 224, 106-113.
Hodgson M.J., Frohliger J., Permar E., Tidwell C., Traven N.D., Olenchock S.A. and Karpf, M. (1991). Symptoms and micro-environmental measures in non-problem buildings. J Occup. Med. 33(4):527–533.
Horie, Y., Taya, M. and Tone, S. (1998). Effect of Cell Adsorption on Photosterilization of Escherichia coli over Titanium Dioxide-Activated Charcoal Granules. J. Chem. Eng. Jpn., 31, 922.
Huang, H., Huang, H., Zhang, L., Hu, P., Ye, X. and Leung, D.Y.C. (2015). Enhanced degradation of gaseous benzene under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation over TiO2 modified by transition metals. Chemical Engineering Journal 259, 534-541.
Inoue, H., Matsuyama, T., Liu, B. J., Sakata, T., Mori, H. and Yoneyama, H. (1994).Photocatalytic Activities for Carbon Dioxide Reduction of TiO2 Microcrystals Prepared in SiO2 Matrices Using a Sol-Gel Method. Chem. Lett. 653.
Jou, C.G. and Huang, G. (2003). A pilot study for oil refinery wastewater treatment using a fixed film Bioreactor. Adv. Environ. Res. 7, 463–469.
Karunakaran, C. (2005). Photocatalysis with ZrO2: oxidation of aniline. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical. 233(1, 2):1–8
Karunakaran, C. and Senthilvelan, S. (2003). A review of classic Fenton's peroxidation as an advanced oxidation technique. J. Hazard. Mater. 98: 33–50.
Kim, C.S., Shin, J.W., An, S.H., Jang, H.D. and Kim, T.O. (2012). Photodegradation of volatile organic compounds using zirconium-doped TiO2/SiO2 visible light photocatalysts. Chemical Engineering Journal 204–206, 40-47.
Kim, J., Zhang, P., Li, J., Wang, J. and Fu, P. (2014). Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene and ozone under UV254+185 nm irradiation using a Pd-deposited TiO2 film. Chemical Engineering Journal 252, 337-345.
Kim, K.H., Jahan, S.A. and Kabir, E. (2013). A review on human health perspective of air pollution with respect to allergies and asthma. Environment international, 59, 41-52.
Koo, Y., Littlejohn, G., Collins, B., Yun, Y., Shanov, V.N., Schulz, M. and Sankar, J. (2014). Synthesis and characterization of Ag–TiO2–CNT nanoparticle composites with high photocatalytic activity under artificial light.Composites Part B: Engineering, 57, 105-111.
Korologos, C.A., Nikolaki, M.D., Zerva, C.N., Philippopoulos, C.J. and Poulopoulos, S.G. (2012). Photocatalytic oxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene in the gas-phase over TiO2-based catalysts. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 244, 24-31.
Kubo, M., Fukuda, H., Chua, X.J. and Yonemoto, T. (2007). Kinetics of ultrasonic degradation of phenol in the presence of composite particles of titanium dioxide and activated carbon. Industrial and engineering chemistry research, 46(3), 699-704.
Li, M., Song, W., Zeng, L., Zeng, D. and Xie, C. (2014). Synthesis of a novel NHTiO2 photocatalyst by annealing in NH3 and H2 for complete decomposition of high concentration benzene under visible light irradiation. Materials Letters 136, 258-261. Li, Y., Li, X., Li, J., and Yin, J. (2006). Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by TiO 2-coated activated carbon and kinetic study. Water research, 40(6), 1119-1126.
Liang, S., Wen, L., Liu, G., Zhu, S., Yuan, R. and Wu, L. (2013). Comparative study of photocatalytic activities of Ca2Nb2O7 nanopolyhedra and TiO2: Degradations of benzene and methyl orange. Catalysis Today 201, 175-181.
Liu, L., Chen, F., Yang, F., Chen, Y. and Crittenden, J. (2012). Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol using nanoscale Fe/TiO2. Chemical Engineering Journal 181–182, 189-195.
Liu, Z., Chen, F., Fang, P., Wang, S., Gao, Y., Zheng, F., Liu, Y. and Dai, Y. (2013). Study of adsorption-assisted photocatalytic oxidation of benzene with TiO2/SiO2 nanocomposites. Applied Catalysis A: General 451, 120-126.
Liu, Z., Fang, P., Wang, S., Gao, Y., Chen, F., Zheng, F., Liu, Y. and Dai, Y. (2012). Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene with CdS-sensitized TiO2 film coated on fiberglass cloth. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 363–364, 159-165.
Liu, J., Jiang, X., Zhou, L., Han, X. and Cui, Z. (2009). Pyrolysis treatment of oil sludge and model-free kinetics analysis, J. Hazard. Mater. 161 1208–1215.
Long, B., Huang, J. and Wang, X. (2012). Photocatalytic degradation of benzene in gas phase by nanostructured BiPO4 catalysts. Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 22(6), 644-653.
Mahmoodi, N. M., Arami, M. and Zhang, J. (2011). Preparation and photocatalytic activity of immobilized composite photocatalyst (titania nanoparticle/activated carbon). Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 509(14), 4754-4764.
Mason, T.J. (1992). Industrial sonochemistry: potential and practicality.Ultrasonics 30:192–196. Mater, L., Sperb, R. M., Madureira, L.A.S., Rosin, A.P., Correa, A.X.R., and Radetski, C.M. (2006). Proposal of a sequential treatment methodology for the safe reuse of oil sludge-contaminated soil. Journal of hazardous materials, 136(3), 967-971.
Mehmet A. Oturan (2014). Advanced Oxidation Processes in Water/Wastewater Treatment: Principles and Applications. A Review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 44(33): 2577-2641.
Molhave, L., Jensen J.G. and Larsen S. (1991). Subjective reactions to volatile organic compounds as air pollutants. Atmos. Environ. 25(a):1283-1293.
Mrayyan, B. and Battikhi, M.N. (2005). Biodegradation of total organic carbon (TOC) in Jordanian petroleum sludge, J. Hazard. Mater. 120 127–134.
Neyens, E. and Baeyens, J. (2003). A review of classic Fenton's peroxidation as an advanced oxidation technique. J. Hazard. Mater. 98:33–50.
Odermatt, J.R. (1994). Natural chromatographic separation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX compounds) in a gasoline contaminated ground water aquifer. Organic Geochemistry, 21(10), 1141-1150.
Ota, E.; Mulberg, E. (1990). Exposure to formaldehyde from indoor air. California Air Resources Board, Technical Report ARB/RD-90-01.
ParIltI, N.B. and Akten, D., (2010). Application of Box–Wilson experimental design method for the solar photocatalytic degradation of textile dyestuff with Fe (III)/H2O2/solar UV process. Desalination 260, 193–198.
Prabha, I. and Lathasree, S. (2014) Photodegradation of phenol by zinc oxide, titania and zinc oxide–titania composites: Nanoparticle synthesis, characterization and comparative photocatalytic efficiencies. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 26(0), 603-613.
Rajeshwar, K., Osugi, M.E., Chanmanee, W., Chenthamarakshan, C.R., Zanoni, M.V.B., Kajitvichyanukul, P., and Krishnan-Ayer, R.(2008). Heterogeneous photocatalytic treatment of organic dyes in air and aqueous media. J. Photochem. Photobiol. C: Photochem. Rev. 9, 171–192.
Ren, C., Qiu, W., Zhang, H., He, Z. and Chen, Y. (2015) Degradation of benzene on TiO2/SiO2/Bi2O3 photocatalysts under UV and visible light. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 398, 215-222.
Ren, C., Zhou, L., Duan, Y. and Chen, Y. (2012) Synergetic effect of thermo-photocatalytic oxidation of benzene on Pt-TiO2/Ce-MnOx. Journal of Rare Earths 30(11), 1106-1111.
Royaee, S.J., Sohrabi, M. and Jabari Barjesteh, P. (2012) Performance evaluation of a continuous flow Photo-Impinging Streams Cyclone Reactor for phenol degradation. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 90(11), 1923-1929.
Sangkhun, W., Laokiat, L., Tanboonchuy, V., Khamdahsag, P. and Grisdanurak, N. (2012) Photocatalytic degradation of BTEX using W-doped TiO2 immobilized on fiberglass cloth under visible light. Superlattices and Microstructures 52(4), 632-642.
Sava, F. and Carlsten, C.(2012). Respiratory Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution: An Update. Clinics in Chest Medicine. 33(4):759–769.
Scheepers, P.T.J., Konings, J., Demirel, G., Gaga, E.O., Anzion, R., Peer, P.G.M., Dogeroglu, T., Ornektekin, S., and Doorn, W. (2010). Determination of exposure to benzene, toluene and xylenes in Turkish primary school children by analysis of breath and by environmental passive sampling. Sci. Total Environ.408: 4863–4870.
Shaari, N., Tan, S.H. and Mohamed, A.R. (2012) Synthesis and characterization of CNT/Ce-TiO2 nanocomposite for phenol degradation. Journal of Rare Earths 30(7), 651-658.
Shao, H. and Pinnavaia, T.J. (2010). Synthesis and properties of nanoparticle forms saponite clay, cancrinite zeolite and phase mixtures thereof.Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 133(1), 10-17.
Shen, Y., Wang, L., Wu, Y., Li, X., Zhao, Q., Hou, Y. and Teng, W. (2015) Facile solvothermal synthesis of MnFe2O4 hollow nanospheres and their photocatalytic degradation of benzene investigated by in situ FTIR. Catalysis Communications 68, 11-14.
Shen, Y., Zhao, Q., Li, X., Yuan, D., Hou, Y. and Liu, S. (2012) Enhanced visible-light induced degradation of benzene on Mg-ferrite/hematite/PANI nanospheres: In situ FTIR investigation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 241–242, 472-477.
Singh, P., Borthakur, A., Singh, R., Pal, D.B., Tiwary, D. and Mishra, P.K. (2015). Reduced graphene -TiO2 nanocomposites as photocatalyst for degradation of btex compound in petrochemical waste water.Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid Wastes 2015: Knowledge Transfer for Sustainable Resource Management, Hong Kong SAR, P.R. China, 19 – 23 May (754-757).
Singh, P., Vishnu, M.C., Sharma, K.K., Singh, R., Madhav, S, Tiwary, D. and Mishra, P.K. (2015). Comparative study of dye degradation using TiO-activated carbon nanocomposites as catalysts in photocatalytic, sonocatalytic, and photosonocatalytic reactor, Desalination and Water Treatment, DOI:210.1080/19443994.2015.1108871.
Stepnowski, P., Siedlecka, E.M., Behrend, P. and Jastorff, B. (2002). Enhanced photo-degradation of contaminants in petroleum refinery wastewater. Water Research, 36(9), 2167-2172.
Truc, V.T.Q. and Oanh, N.T.K. (2007). Roadside BTEX and other gaseous air pollutants in relation to emission sources. Atmospheric Environment, 41(36), 7685-7697.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1996). Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Federal Register. 61(79):17960-18011.
USEPA. (1987). Assessment of health risks to garment workers and certain home residents from exposure to formaldehyde. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.
Wake, H., (2005). Oil refineries: a review of their ecological impacts on the aquatic environment. Estuar. Coast Shelf Sci. 62, 131–140.
Wang, C. and Wu, T. (2015) TiO2 nanoparticles with efficient photocatalytic activity towards gaseous benzene degradation. Ceramics International 41(2, Part B), 2836-2839.
Wang, J., Wang, X., Liu, X., Zhu, T., Guo, Y. and Qi, H. (2015) Catalytic oxidation of chlorinated benzenes over V2O5/TiO2 catalysts: The effects of chlorine substituents. Catalysis Today 241, Part A, 92-99.
Wang, K.H., Hsieh, Y.H., Ko, R. C., and Chang, C.C. (1999). Photocatalytic degradation of wastewater from manufactured fiber by titanium dioxide suspensions in aqueous solution. Environ. Int. 25, 671–676.
Xu, N., Wang, W., Han, P. and Lu, X. (2009). Effects of ultrasound on oily sludge deoiling. Journal of hazardous materials, 171(1), 914-917.
Yu, H., Ming, H., Zhang, H., Li, H., Pan, K., Liu, Y., Wang, F., Gong, J. and Kang, Z. (2012) Au/ZnO nanocomposites: Facile fabrication and enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of benzene. Materials Chemistry and Physics 137(1), 113-117.
Yu, S., Yun, H.J., Kim, Y.H. and Yi, J. (2014) Carbon-doped TiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with nanographene as a high performance photocatalyst for phenol degradation under visible light irradiation. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 144(0), 893-899.
Yujie, Z., Yujing, M., Junfeng, L. and Abdelwahid, M. (2012). Levels, sources and health risks of carbonyls and BTEX in the ambient air of Beijing, China. J. Environ. Sci. 24:124–130. Zhang, Y., Mu, Y., Liu, J. and Mellouki, A. (2012). Levels, sources and health risks of carbonyls and BTEX in the ambient air of Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 24(1), 124-130.
Zhang, Y., Tang, Z.R., Fu, X. and Xu, Y.J. (2011) Nanocomposite of Ag–AgBr–TiO2 as a photoactive and durable catalyst for degradation of volatile organic compounds in the gas phase. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 106(3–4), 445-452.
Zou, T., Xie, C., Liu, Y., Zhang, S., Zou, Z. and Zhang, S. (2013) Full mineralization of toluene by photocatalytic degradation with porous TiO2/SiC nanocomposite film. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 552, 504-510.
تعداد مشاهده مقاله: 3,988
تعداد دریافت فایل اصل مقاله: 3,255