|تعداد مشاهده مقاله||104,854,178|
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مخاطرات انسانی: تهدیدهای امنیّتی ناشی از تقابل انسان و محیط
|پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی|
|مقاله 9، دوره 44، شماره 3 - شماره پیاپی 81، آبان 1391، صفحه 157-176 اصل مقاله (304.78 K)|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22059/jhgr.2012.24986|
|محمد رئوف حیدری فر|
|استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه پیام نور|
|جهانی که در آن زندگی میکنیم، نسبت به گذشته خطرناکتر شده است و با این روند و بهدلیل وجود برخی از نیازهای انسانی و زیادهخواهیهای وی، تضعیف نقش دین در مسائل مختلف، پیشرفت علم و فنآوری و رفاه و قدرتطلبی با بحرانها و مخاطرات زیادی، همانند انفجار جمعیّت، تخریب محیط زیست، منابع و نابرابری روزافزون بین فقیر و غنی روبهرو خواهد شد. بشر امروز با بیماریهای کشنده و خطرناکی روبهروست که ناشی از تغییر در ژنتیک و دستکاری در طبیعت است. تغییرات آبوهوایی ناشی از علل انسانی و بسیاری از پیامدهای منفی ناشی از رابطهی انسان و محیط، از رهیافت ژئوپلیتیک محیط زیست قابل بررسی است. برخی از این موارد حتّی از سوی قدرتهای مختلف بهعنوان یک اسلحه در جهت مقابله با دشمن استفاده میشود که از آن بهنام جنگ اکولوژیک یا در مورد بیماریها، جنگ بیولوژیک نام برده میشود؛ جنگ برسر منابع کمیاب نیز، بهویژه در مناطق بحرانی وجود دارد؛ برخیها از ایجاد جنگها برای آب در مناطق خشکی همانند خاورمیانه بحث میکنند. تمامی مواردی که بهعنوان مخاطره مطرح میشود، زمینهی اختلال در زندگی انسان که موجودی تنها در این هستی بوده را فراهم کرده است. انسان در این سیّارهی خاکی و در کیهان تنهاست و هیچ موجود دیگری نمیتواند به آنان در رفع مشکلات عظیمی که بخش زیادی از آن، بهدست خود وی ایجاد شده کمک کنند. این مقاله به مسائل و مشکلات محیطی با رهیافت مخاطرات انسانی توجّه میکند و معتقد به افزایش مخاطرات در آینده است. این پژوهش ماهیّتی توصیفی ـ تحلیلی داشته و با نگاهی آیندهپژوهی به مخاطرات جهانی مینگرد.|
|ژئواکولوژیکی؛ ژئواکونومی؛ ژئوپلیتیک؛ سیاست و امنیّت.؛ مخاطرات|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|Human Hazards: Threats from Human – Environmental Relationship|
|M. R. Heidary Far|
|Extended Abstract |
The world which we live in has been changed dangerously from the past onward and according to the evidences and reasons such as human intends, progress in science and technology, well being and desire to power among human beings provide many crises and hazards like population explosion, environmental destruction, shortage of resources and uneven and disparity between poverty and richness. Today, human has been experienced fatal and terrible diseases resulting from transformation in genetics and manipulation in the nature. Global climate change for the sake of human activities and other negative consequences from human- environmental relationships has been studied in the lens of Environmental Geopolitics. Some cases has been used by main powers in the world as a weapon for confronting and fighting against their enemy called as ecological warfare and in terms of diseases is called biological wars. There are also wars over scarce resources especially in regions faced crises. There will be wars in future for water in arid area according to some theory. All examples consider as hazards provide tribulation and disorder in the life of human who is a lonely creature in the universe. Human is alone in the solid planet earth and in the universe and there is no body else who could help to solve his difficulty problems which most of them has been created by himself. This paper looks at problems and disasters as human hazards and it believes they will increase in the upcoming years.
Hazards are too close to human kinds. Although there are numerous reasons and causes for deaths, the risks of dead are high when we cross streets. Accidents are reported that take a major reason for all deaths throughout the world including Iran. In the process, pollution of air has been attended by academic groups. Weather was clean in the past, however today it is contaminated. It means that for the sake of rapid increase in population expansion, over urbanization, various technologies, over utilization and extraction from environment for human well being let to worse circumstances of climate. So life in overcrowded places like metropolitans such as Tehran city has many outcomes and hazards for human health and pressure on his soul just only for contamination. But it is not whole story. Erosion in soils has been intensive and forests are destroyed severely and continuously and these catalysts led to global warming finally. Increase in population expansion produce a condition that freshwater will be faced by shortage, crises and pollution. Some body like Paul Erlich in his book titled Population Bomb discuss about future pessimistically. He determine that the world finally return to eighteenth and nineteenth centuries because of some facts such population explosion, resource scarcities, pollution in water resources in arid areas such as Middle East and etc. Although some promise a new world order based on peace and development, it is believed that nation states eventually have fueled crises, tensions and wars in line linked them in international realm.
The methodology of this project has emphasized on the analytical- descriptive method that its data and its information has been gathered by ways which are common such as books and journals in libraries and other sources like Internet. In the paper, there is environmental vision and approach to the Human-Made Hazards and also it involves discussion about the events in present and future.
Results and Discussion
The world which we live in has become more dangerous than the past. While there were a balance between people and environment, pollution was not produced too much as today, or if it did its trend was reversed very soon , today environmental crises has been grown constantly and rapidly instead of development in technology and human awareness of hazards. Everyday a baby is born and population will grow while the rate of vital resources would be declined. Meanwhile, some of these resources are not replaced. Today human being has been faced with new threads just only for the progress in technology, environmental degradations and etc. it involves Ozone depletion for the rise of greenhouse gases, upcoming of water ocean level, ice melting in poles and glaciers, temperature warming in atmosphere that all are causes to human crises like agrarian limits, agriculture problems and food crises as rice scarcity in Thailand and unrests and political tensions of farmers and other business consequently. Also human, today, produce sewages and wastes which they generate abundant gases again and this issue is very danger for him.
Diseases and infections were not expanding very much and they limited to their origin in several decades ago, but today they radiate and distribute quickly and in vast areas. It seems that the progress in science and technology equals to the demise of human life and health towards dangers and hazards.
This is true that this new space has been meaningful with development; well being and progress for human kind, but in the other side hazards are proliferated. Growth and generating of new diseases have been reported rare in human history, and, but, they are parts of hazards and threats imposed social outcome and economic costs and political results on the body of societies. Transportation, Communication and insensitive interactions transform and transit dangerous infections like mad-cow disease, SARS, Swine Flu, Bubonic Plague and etc throughout world as quickly as they can. HIV has converted into main problem of the world. The HIV, Mad Cow Disease, Bird Flu and Swine Flu are new cases emanating from shifting ways of human life facilitated by technology, obliterating of the role of fate, ethics and religion and also its control over social relations, improvement and progress in food industries as unnatural method and also modernization, science and technology. These catastrophe and catalysts draws new difficulty crises and new space for human beings. For apprehending this dilemma, it is necessary to mention that tow forces named nongovernmental processes and states themselves are useful to our understanding. It means that anti geopolitical forces, in one hand, like diseases, environmental degradation, international crime organizations, national and international events and terrorism and etc are not respecting to states, laws, and sovereignty and in the other hand nation states are trying to control, protect and comprehend national, regional and global affairs and currents by using of cooperation, coalition so that suitable and inhabitable environment has been offered.
|geo Economy, Geopolitics, Hazards, Political Ecology, politics, Security.|
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