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ارزیابی طرحهای هادی و نقش آن در توسعهی کالبدی روستا از دیدگاه روستاییان (مطالعهی موردی: شهرستان جهرم)
|پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی|
|مقاله 6، دوره 44، شماره 4، بهمن 1391، صفحه 93-110 اصل مقاله (866.56 K)|
|شناسه دیجیتال (DOI): 10.22059/jhgr.2013.29386|
|علی اکبر عنابستانی1؛ محمّدحسن اکبری2|
|1دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد|
|2کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد|
|با گذشت بیش از دو دهه از آغاز اجرای طرحهای هادی در نواحی روستایی کشور و صرف هزینههای زیاد در مراحل مختلف تهیّه و اجرای آن، شاهد آثار گوناگون در زمینههای کالبدی ـ فضایی، همچون دگرگونی در بافت کالبدی روستا، تغییر در الگوی ساخت مسکن، ناهماهنگی در شبکهی معابر روستا، تسهیل در امر رفتوآمد روستاییان و ... هستیم. هدف از پژوهش در این مطالعه، ارزیابی آثار کالبدی اجرای طرحهای هادی در توسعهی سکونتگاههای روستایی در قسمتی از کشور است. روش پژوهش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی است که برای گردآوری اطلاعات از روشهای میدانی و اسنادی کمک گرفته شده و بر اساس آن با توجّه به حجم جامعهی آماری (4025 خانوار)، حجم نمونهی خانوارهای مورد پرسشگری بر پایهی فرمول کوکران برابر 298 خانوار بوده است. یافتههای پژوهش نشان میدهد، بیشترین اثرگذاری طرحهای هادی در روستاها در بُعد بازگشایی و نوسازی شبکهی معابر روستایی روی داده است، بهگونهای که 6/77 درصد اثرگذاری طرحها در رابطه با متغیّر شبکهی معابر قرار میگیرد و در کنار آن، میانگین وزنی 88/2 اثرگذاری طرح هادی را در این متغیّر تبیین میکند، امّا در سایر متغیّرها، یعنی مسکن روستایی و کاربری اراضی، توفیق چندانی در محیطهای روستایی حاصل نشده است. با توجّه به یافتههای پژوهش، راهکارهای اجرایی مانند، ظرفیتسازی نهادی و قانونی در جهت تسهیل و افزایش مشارکت مردمی در توسعهی کالبدی نقاط روستایی، تخصیص اعتبارات کافی و برنامهی مدّون مالی برای اجرای کامل طرحها، جلوگیری از ورود عناصر و قوانین مکتوب شهری به حوزههای روستایی و بازنگری آنها و... پیشنهاد میشود.|
|بهداشت محیط؛ شبکهی معابر؛ کاربری اراضی؛ مسکن روستایی؛ نواحی روستایی.|
|عنوان مقاله [English]|
|Assessment of Rural Guidance plans and Its Role in Rural Physical Development from the Villagers’ View(Case Study: Jahrom County)|
|aliakbar anabestani1؛ M. H. Akbari2|
|Extended Abstract |
It is a long time that rural conductor plans have been implemented in a large number of rural areas in Iran and a lot of them have been accomplished and there are considerable numbers of rural areas which are not yet completed. Bearing these in mind, qualitative and quantitative assessment of these plans seems quite necessary in regard to their effectiveness and efficiency in tackling rural issues. In the other hands, a lot of government funding, amounting to millions of dollar have been spent on different parts of these projects, such as mapping, studies and so on. Therefore, it is necessary for the inhabitants of the rural areas to get to know what achievements these projects have had for their life. Therefore, in this study we try to assess the effectiveness of these plans on rural physical development of Jahrom County from the villager’s view as a case study so that we may discover the advantages and shortcomings of these plans and make use of the study results in future development planning of rural areas of the country and increase their effectiveness.
This study was carried out using the descriptive-analytical method. Some parts of the data were collected through field study, questionnaires, and interview. Other parts of the data, for example, data needed for theoretical and conceptual framework, documents and census were collected through library research.
Statistical society included rural areas in which rural conductor plans have been concluded ten years ago. Thus, it included 12 rural areas with a population of 4025 households. To estimate the number of participants, Cochrane sampling formula was used with a confidence level of 70% and error level of 55 %.The sampling was carried out in simple random method. Accordingly, to investigate the effectiveness of rural conductor plans on physical texture and rural development, 298 husbandmen were questioned. Having collected and processed the data in ArcGis, and SPSS,…we turned to data analysis andexplicitation.
The following hypotheses were proposed to account for the study questions:
The main hypothesis: "It seems that implementation of rural conducted plans has made way for systematized physical texture for rural settlements."
To prove the main hypothesis, we had to formulate three secondary hypotheses based on research questions:
It seems that implementation of rural conductor plans has paved the way for increasing the quality of rural housing.
It seems that implementation of rural conductor plans has increased the rural people access to public service and has facilitated their transportation.
It seems that implementation of rural conductor plans has been successful in environmental health.
Results and Discussion
To obtain the value of effectiveness of rural conductor plans in each of the aspects, single sample T-test was used and2.5 was selected as the assessment theoretical median for the effects of rural conductor plans. The study results show that public thoroughfare(2.88) and environmental health (2.51). as variablesof ruralconductor plans on rural physical developmentwere higher than what expected. The study results revealed that rural areas of Behjan and Jarmesht with averages of 2.8 and 2.67 had the highest rank among other rural areas of the study area and rural areas of Kenardaran, Tahooneh and Tadvan were the last three rural areas which had the lowest rank.
In this study the value of Freedman statistic was 0.833 which had a significance level higher than what needed (0.05).Therefore, it is concluded that the value of effectiveness of rural conductor plans on rural physical development had not significance discrepancy and is almost homogeneous. In fact, the difference in the performance of rural conductor plans is not large enough to take into account. Based on distribution coefficients, we may conclude that among other rural areas of the study area, the rural areas of GolBerenji, Sagade, Mosaviyeh and Alaviyeh were more homogeneous in four discussed variables. To assess the effectiveness of different aspects on rural physical development, stepwise regression was used. The results show that the aspect of public thoroughfare with a determination coefficient of=0.766 had the largest effect on physical development in a way that it holds 77.6 per cent of the significant effects of conductor plans. Aspects of environmental health housing and land use were 13.3, 4.2 and 3.7 respectively.
Assessment of rural conductor plans in 28 indexes at 12 rural areas of Jahrom County show that average effects of the plans were 2.43. Based on single sample T-test, there is a significant difference between average effects of the plans and 2.5 (p< 0.05). Therefore the effects of conductor plans in the rural areas of Jahrom are assessed as having low efficiency.
To conclude we put the research hypothesis into test, and accordingly we have:
Among the eight housing related indexes, there were only two indexes higher than what expected and had significant correlations. These two indexes were house reinforcement and facilitating getting title deed. Besides, the results of T-test showed that conductor plans were poorly efficient in increasing the quality of rural housing (2.19); thus this hypothesis is rejected.
There were eight indexes for public thoroughfare, and except for quality of pavement and beauty of passages other six indexes were significant and higher than what expected. Furthermore, the results of stepwise regression are well indicative of more effectiveness of the variable of public thoroughfare. Thus, the second hypothesis is proved.
Among the rural environmental health related variables, three indexes of surface water disposal, rural sewage disposal, quality of garbage collection enjoyed significant correlations. Besides, the results of T-test show that the effectiveness of the plans on rural environmental health was higher than what expected. Thus, the third hypothesis is proved.
Finally, to confirm or reject the main hypothesis of the study, based on T-test, the effects of the conductor plans on rural physical development of rural areas of Jahrom County were lower than what expected (2.43). Therefore, the conductor plans have not been successful in making way for organized physical texture of rural settlements. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the study is not proved.
According to research findings the following guidelines are proposed: executive approaches such as in institutional and legal capacity expansion in order to facilitate and increase people’s participation in rural physical development of rural areas, allocation of adequate funds and organized financial programs for full implementation of plans, preventing the uncalculated implementation of urban plans in the rural areas without any adjustment for use in rural areas and so on.
|Environmental Health, Land Use, Public Thoroughfare, Rural Areas., Rural Housing|
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